Changes in the physical-chemical environment resulting from poor human activity, such as the change of components due to garbage dumping, compaction by vehicular traffic and increased erosion due to deforestation, directly affect the habitat of the different soil organisms.

Like all ecosystems, the soil has a living component (community of living beings) of greater importance and a non-living component (biotope), but which is considered modeled by the former. Among the living component, we can mention herbs, roots and some herbivorous, detritivorous, insect, mites and worms (consumers) and fungi and bacteria (decomposers); while in the non-living component can be found the solid mineral particles (sand, silts and clays), the water and mineral salts dissolved in it, the air, the humus or organic matter and the immaterial components such as temperature, light, and humidity.